1.Speech is not an inherent biological function of human, but a non-instinctive, acquired, ‘cultural’ function of communication ideas by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols.
Interjections and Onomatopoeias are conventional
2.Involuntary expression of feeling is not language
a. non-symbolic—the sound does not indicates the emotion, does not stand aloof.
b. but a automatic overflow of emotional energy, hardly constitute communication
3. Interjections and sound-imitative words are related to their natural prototypes(the instinctive cries), but are not equal to the prototypes. They are purely social or cultural as arts like paintings.
4. primitive peoples like the Athabaskan tribes speak languages with hardly any onomatopoeias.
Conclusion: languages are not instinctive, even if they were traceable to the interjections
5. however much instinctive expressions and the natural environment may serve as a stimulus for the development of certain elements of speech, there is no discernible instinctive basis in human language. (? did Sapir to some extant agree that nature has influenced the development of language?)
6.Speech is an overlaid function, organs of speech exist for other fundamental purposes (breath eat…).
7. language cannot be definitely localized for it consists of a symbolic relation between
elements of consciousness (experience)
auditory, motor, and other cerebral and nervous tracks of the brain (organ mechanism)
8. this book will only discuss the function and form of the arbitrary systems of symbolism termed as language.
9. essence of language:assigning conventional, voluntarily articulated, sounds to the diverse elements of experience. (connect sound arbitrarily to experience)
e.g. “house” becomes an element of speech only when it is associated with the image of a house.
simplify experience, arbitrarily group all the similar experiences together and class them under a same heading.e.g. house is a symbol of a concept that refers to many ‘similar’ objects.
Conclusion: language is a record of the setting of concepts into mutual relations.
Thought and Speech
10. Speech not always indicates thought (?what is thought in the first place?)
e.g. I had a good breakfast—has no conceptual significance but symbolizes an experience
language reflects different levels of the inner content of consciousness: from particular image to abstract concepts (and their relationship termed as reasoning)
Thought: the highest latent or potential content of speech. In order to interpret this content, the elements in the flow of language must be their fullest conceptual values.
Thus, language could at best be the outward facet of thought on the highest, most generalized level of symbolic expression. language is the final label put upon the finished thought.
11. whether thought can exist without language?
Think without language is an illusion.
a. fail to distinguish between imagery and thought. need words to connect images.
b. fail to distinguish between language and its auditory symbolism
?????the most rarefied thought may be but the conscious counterpart of an unconscious linguistic symbolism
12. language and thought interact with each other and develop together.
13. cycle of speech: auditory imagery–motor–auditory perception—auditory imagery
(my understanding: speaker has the initial AI in mind, speak out using Motor system,
listener receives the sound and translate it through AP into AI2,
when AI 2 is identical with Al, communication succeed).
14. modification of the speech process
auditory imagery—xsound(inhibited in muscles or motor nerves, experience of fatigue in the speech organs after intensive reading or thinking)—ap talking to ones’ self
AI (slightly affected, or not at all)—sound—ap thinking aloud
15.transfer the whole system of speech symbolism into other terms (visual speech symbolisms)
lip movements for example—has no great value for most since people have auditory-motor system, plus, not all the articulations are visible to the eye)
written and typed symbolisms
written language is a point-to-point equivalence to its spoken counterpart
written forms are symbols of the spoken ones.
Yet, auditory-motor associations are probably latent at the least, since visual symbols are money that serves as the circulation medium of goods (auditory symbols) exchange.
16. linguistic transfer (unlimited)
Morse code. the letter of the Morse code is a symbol(symbol of written form) of a symbol(written form, symbol of spoken form) of a symbol (spoken form). possible, think through tick-auditory symbolism, or even tactile-motor symbolism.
a). one-to-one equivalences of the normal system of speech, sign language
b), military plains Indians’ gesture-symbolisms, limiting to the rendering of grosser speech elements as are an imperative minimum under difficult circumstances.—the intelligibility of these symbolisms is also due to their automatic and silent translation into the terms of a fuller flow of speech.
17.Conclusion: voluntary communication of ideas is either a transfer from the typical speech symbolism or at least involves the intermediary of truly linguistic symbolism.
the classification in formal patterning and in the relation of concepts, rather than sounds of the speech, are essential fact of language.
language is abstract rather than physical
18. Even the lowest developments of material culure might not be possible untill language occured.